- Gallego, A.-J; Calvo-Zaragoza, J.; Rico-Juan, J. R.
"Insights Into Efficient k-Nearest Neighbor Classification With Convolutional Neural Codes"
IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 99312-99326
The increasing consideration of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) has not prevented the use of the k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) method. In fact, a hybrid CNN-kNN approach is an interesting option in which the network specializes in feature extraction through its activations (Neural Codes), while the kNN has the advantage of performing a retrieval by means of similarity. However, this hybrid approach also has the disadvantages of the kNN search, and especially its high computational cost which is, in principle, undesirable for large-scale data. In this paper, we present the first comprehensive study of efficient kNN search algorithms using this hybrid CNN-kNN approach. This has been done by considering up to 16 different algorithms, each of which is evaluated with a different parametrization, in 7 datasets of heterogeneous composition. Our results show that no single algorithm is capable of covering all aspects, but rather that each family of algorithms is better suited to specific aspects of the problem. This signifies that Fast Similarity Search algorithms maintain their performance, but do not reduce the cost as much as the Data Reduction family does. In turn, the Approximated Similarity Search family is postulated as a good option when attempting to balance accuracy and efficiency. The experiments also suggest that considering statistical transformation algorithms such as Linear Discriminant Analysis might be useful in certain cases.
author = "Gallego, A.-J; Calvo-Zaragoza, J.; Rico-Juan, J. R.",
title = "Insights Into Efficient k-Nearest Neighbor Classification With Convolutional Neural Codes",
issn = "2169-3536",
journal = "IEEE Access",
pages = "99312-99326",
volume = "8",
year = "2020"
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